shoulder arthrosis

Degeneration of connective tissue and cartilage eventually leads to the development of a chronic disease characterized by a wavy course and is called arthrosis. It turns out that osteoarthritis of the shoulder joint is a pathological change in the tissues of the shoulder joint bag. A distinctive feature of this disease is considered to be an extremely slow development. Because of this, the patient does not notice the development of the pathological process. The shoulder joint is one of the most mobile and has a wide range of motion. But that makes it one of the most traumatic, along with the forearm joint. Even minor mechanical damage can lead to the development of the disease.

shoulder osteoarthritis

Reasons for the development of osteoarthritis

The causes of the development of the disease are the natural wear and tear of connective tissue, inflammation of various etiologies and salt deposits. In addition, there are several factors that can also lead to the development of a pathological process, during which the cartilaginous tissue becomes thinner and loses its smoothness.

Osteoarthritis Classification

There is a conditional classification of the disease - it is primary and secondary arthrosis.

Primary osteoarthritis develops over time in the course of natural changes in the joint with no apparent cause. Secondary - a consequence of injuries to the limbs. Osteoarthritis of the second type is most often diagnosed in middle-aged and young people. In older people, a mixed type of the disease is most often determined. The development of a primary disease can lead to:

  • genetic diseases that lead to premature destruction of connective tissue and the development of the disease at a young age. Most often, osteoarthritis of the shoulder joint appears in women with dysfunctional genetics.
  • Birth defects of the joints, which lead to increased trauma.

The main causes of the development of the disease of the second group include the following reasons.

  • Mechanical damage and hand weeds. These include dislocations, fractures, severe bruises. Sprains can also trigger the disease.
  • Osteoarthritis can be called the occupational disease of builders and all those who have the main workload on their hands.
  • The cause of osteoarthritis is considered advanced rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Mechanical damage always affects the nerve fibers and the blood supply system, which decreases adequate tissue nutrition, which leads to post-traumatic osteoarthritis.
  • Disturbances of the endocrine system, metabolic processes. The unstable work of the endocrine system leads to a decrease in the supply of organs and tissues with essential nutrients, which, in turn, negatively affects joint mobility and contributes to its deformation.
  • At menopause, due to the decrease in the amount of female hormones, the gradual destruction of cartilage tissue begins. Autoimmune diseases such as gout or psoriasis are also considered a catalyst for the development of osteoarthritis.
  • Diseases of the heart and the vascular system of the body largely affect the active destruction of the shoulder joint bag. For example, varicose veins lead to a slowdown of blood flow through the vessels, which significantly affects the nutrition of the tissues, and as a result, degeneration of the joints develops.

Traumatologists always warn that a dislocation not reduced in time or the lack of adequate treatment in the future will inevitably lead to the development of osteoarthritis. This is due to the fact that the bones grow together and the joint loses its mobility.

the course of the disease

Shoulder joint osteoarthritis begins with a gradual change in the cartilage tissue. Due to injuries or other reasons, the blood supply to the connective tissue decreases, which leads to thinning of the cartilage, its external changes, a decrease in the synovial membrane and the appearance of salt deposits. This leads to a decrease in range of motion and discomfort in this area.

disease symptoms

The clinical picture of arthrosis manifests itself gradually, so many do not realize the initial stage of the disease and miss the opportunity for rapid relief from the lesion.

Arthritis symptoms include:

  1. Pain in shoulder, collarbone and shoulder blades. Pain can manifest both at rest and during active loads.
  2. First, a quieter, then audible click at the joint.
  3. Decreased limb motor activity.
  4. Painful reaction of the joint to changes in weather conditions.
  5. A small swelling may appear in the affected joint area.
  6. Complete loss of mobility due to ossification of the joint, this symptom is observed in the most severe phase of the disease.

Osteoarthritis of the shoulder joint

The stages of development of the disease have a clear classification. 4 stages of osteoarthritis progression were identified.

1 degree osteoarthritis

The beginning of the development of the pathology is characterized by a slight pain in the shoulder area in the morning and in the evening. There is a decrease in motor activity in the morning, which disappears after a while. There is a slight stiffness of movement. After a long rest with an active load, sharp pain may occur. When working with the hand on the shoulder joint, a barely audible popping sound can be noticed without an onslaught of painful sensations. Constant pain occurs only during physical exertion, which disappears at rest. It is not always possible to diagnose the onset of the disease with the help of an X-ray examination, as the image shows only the appearance of small deposits of salt and a slight narrowing of the synovial membrane.

Arthrosis 2 degrees

At this stage of disease development, there is a significant decrease in motor activity. Crisis in the joint during movement becomes significantly audible, pain symptoms are acute, permanent. The joint remains mobile, but the mechanics of movement change significantly. During exercise, the pain becomes more intense and prolonged. During the development of 2nd degree osteoarthritis, the patient does not leave a feeling of constant fatigue. Painful pains appear in the shoulder, associated with a significant change in the thickness of the interosseous membrane. The X-ray image shows that the synovial cleft becomes several times thinner compared to the norm. In addition, there is significant deformation of the joint, which leads to the impossibility of carrying out heavy physical work. Salt deposits occupy an increasing area.

3 degree osteoarthritis

This phase of the disease is characterized by a significant loss of motor activity, even small-amplitude oscillatory movements. The pain becomes constant, its character changes from painful to acute. This is due to spasms of the periarticular muscles. The bones in the joint become inflamed and sensitive to changes in weather conditions. A sign of this degree of arthrosis is a popping sound, audible to others, at the slightest movement of the hand. When performing an x-ray examination, there is an almost complete disappearance of the interosseous membrane, significant deposits of salt are located along the edges. The tissue deformation is so great that it creates significant difficulties in moving it until it is completely lost. 3rd degree osteoarthritis is the cause of disability due to loss of limb capacity.

4 stages of osteoarthritis development

At this stage of the disease, a complete loss of movement is recorded, the joint is completely deformed. Accompanied by constant unbearable pain, which is not suppressed by drugs. On radiography, fusion of the bones of the joint is noted - ankylosis or the appearance of a false joint - neoarthrosis. Illness in this form always leads to disability. The only treatment is to replace the joint with an artificial one through surgery.

Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of osteoarthritis

A preliminary diagnosis is made based on joint mobility tests and descriptions of symptoms from the patient's words. For damages or refutation, an X-ray examination is prescribed. At the initial stage, small salt deposits are noticed, the joint deformation is not fixed. In complex stages of the disease, an x-ray image fully reflects the degree of connective tissue destruction and the affected joint area.

For an accurate diagnosis at an early stage, the doctor may prescribe additional tests, for example, CT or MRI with or without contrast.

Be sure to prescribe a biochemical blood test to determine the amount of uric acid salts.

Treatment of osteoarthritis of the shoulder joint

The golden rule that a disease is easier to prevent than to cure also applies here. But if the disease has started its development, the main thing is to start complex treatment in time. The nature of the disease is such that it cannot be cured, but the risk of its development can be significantly reduced.

Treatment in the early stages

In the first stage of the development of the disease, condoprotectants are prescribed, which accelerate the process of regeneration of cartilage tissue, and vitamin-mineral complexes, which increase the amount of essential trace elements in periarticular tissues.

To reduce symptoms, the patient is given a diet, it is strictly forbidden to eat salty, pickled foods, various types of canned foods and smoked meats. It is recommended to eat vegetables and fruits as much as possible.

The doctor should prescribe ointments and gels that not only relieve pain but also help to restore connective tissue in the joint.

Great importance in the process of treating 1st degree osteoarthritis is given to physical therapy exercises. It is recommended to apply medical patches to the affected joint.

Treatment of stage 2 osteoarthritis

At this stage, it is necessary to reduce the pain syndrome and completely or partially get rid of the focus of inflammation. In this case, non-steroidal drugs are prescribed that relieve pain and relieve inflammation.

As in the first case, condoprotectants are mandatory for use. Hyaluronic acid, which is part of these medications, speeds up the tissue repair process. A strict diet is mandatory, excluding all foods that provoke the development of the disease.

In addition to drug treatment, regular physical education is required. Physiotherapy is an invaluable aid in the treatment of osteoarthritis. The simplest but effective treatment methods are prescribed, such as ultrasonic treatment of the affected joint, electrophoresis, pinpoint laser impact on the bones of the shoulder joint.

In addition, mud baths, massage visits and traditional medicine are recommended to activate the recovery process. These measures can significantly delay the development of the disease.

Treatment of the 3rd stage of the disease

The treatment of this phase is a set of measures to relieve the pain, for this they give an injection into the joint with a corticosteroid. The number of locks must not exceed 4 times a year.

Therapeutic measures aim to activate tissue repair processes and slow down the destruction process. For this, condoprotectants and drugs that improve blood circulation are prescribed.

Physical therapy and physical therapy exercises are also recommended. A strict diet is required, excluding foods or foods rich in acids.

Treatment of 4 degrees of osteoarthritis

Treatment of this form of the disease is only possible by the surgical method, replacing the joint with an artificial one. The most common are ceramic, titanium and plastic artificial prostheses. Medical methods, as well as physical therapy, do not bring results.

Treatment with folk methods

Traditional medicine methods are actively used in the early stages of the disease. Tinctures on medicinal herbs, various compresses, rubbing, homemade ointments are widely used.

Folk remedies only provide additional pain relief, no healing effect is observed. Therapeutic measures are indicated only by a specialist and he also controls their implementation.

Oatmeal compresses, cabbage juice or honey are widely used. Alcohol tinctures are being prepared on the rhizomes of elecampane and golden mustache, lilac and angelica flowers.

Baths with medicinal herbs are recommended as a warming procedure. To do this, take hay powder, mint, burdock rhizomes, mustard seeds.

The ointments are prepared with sweet clover herbs, hops, St. John's wort based on cosmetic Vaseline.

Which doctor treats arthritis

An orthopedic surgeon deals with joint disease, but by determining the causes of disease development, further examination by a trauma surgeon is possible. For it is precisely the clarification of the causes of the disease that allows us to prescribe the most correct treatment.